1. Technology
Linux / Unix Command: ptrace
Command Library

NAME

ptrace - process trace  

SYNOPSIS

#include <sys/ptrace.h>

long ptrace(enum __ptrace_request request, pid_t pid, void *addr, void *data);  

DESCRIPTION

The ptrace system call provides a means by which a parent process may observe and control the execution of another process, and examine and change its core image and registers. It is primarily used to implement breakpoint debugging and system call tracing.

The parent can initiate a trace by calling fork(2) and having the resulting child do a PTRACE_TRACEME, followed (typically) by an exec(3). Alternatively, the parent may commence trace of an existing process using PTRACE_ATTACH.

While being traced, the child will stop each time a signal is delivered, even if the signal is being ignored. (The exception is SIGKILL, which has its usual effect.) The parent will be notified at its next wait(2) and may inspect and modify the child process while it is stopped. The parent then causes the child to continue, optionally ignoring the delivered signal (or even delivering a different signal instead).

When the parent is finished tracing, it can terminate the child with PTRACE_KILL or cause it to continue executing in a normal, untraced mode via PTRACE_DETACH.

The value of request determines the action to be performed:

PTRACE_TRACEME
Indicates that this process is to be traced by its parent. Any signal (except SIGKILL) delivered to this process will cause it to stop and its parent to be notified via wait. Also, all subsequent calls to exec by this process will cause a SIGTRAP to be sent to it, giving the parent a chance to gain control before the new program begins execution. A process probably shouldn't make this request if its parent isn't expecting to trace it. (pid, addr, and data are ignored.)

The above request is used only by the child process; the rest are used only by the parent. In the following requests, pid specifies the child process to be acted on. For requests other than PTRACE_KILL, the child process must be stopped.

PTRACE_PEEKTEXT, PTRACE_PEEKDATA
Reads a word at the location addr in the child's memory, returning the word as the result of the ptrace call. Linux does not have separate text and data address spaces, so the two requests are currently equivalent. (The argument data is ignored.)
PTRACE_PEEKUSR
Reads a word at offset addr in the child's USER area, which holds the registers and other information about the process (see <linux/user.h> and <sys/user.h>). The word is returned as the result of the ptrace call. Typically the offset must be word-aligned, though this might vary by architecture. (data is ignored.)
PTRACE_POKETEXT, PTRACE_POKEDATA
Copies the word data to location addr in the child's memory. As above, the two requests are currently equivalent.
PTRACE_POKEUSR
Copies the word data to offset addr in the child's USER area. As above, the offset must typically be word-aligned. In order to maintain the integrity of the kernel, some modifications to the USER area are disallowed.
PTRACE_GETREGS, PTRACE_GETFPREGS
Copies the child's general purpose or floating-point registers, respectively, to location data in the parent. See <linux/user.h> for information on the format of this data. (addr is ignored.)
PTRACE_SETREGS, PTRACE_SETFPREGS
Copies the child's general purpose or floating-point registers, respectively, from location data in the parent. As for PTRACE_POKEUSER, some general purpose register modifications may be disallowed. (addr is ignored.)
PTRACE_CONT
Restarts the stopped child process. If data is non-zero and not SIGSTOP, it is interpreted as a signal to be delivered to the child; otherwise, no signal is delivered. Thus, for example, the parent can control whether a signal sent to the child is delivered or not. (addr is ignored.)
PTRACE_SYSCALL, PTRACE_SINGLESTEP
Restarts the stopped child as for PTRACE_CONT, but arranges for the child to be stopped at the next entry to or exit from a system call, or after execution of a single instruction, respectively. (The child will also, as usual, be stopped upon receipt of a signal.) From the parent's perspective, the child will appear to have been stopped by receipt of a SIGTRAP. So, for PTRACE_SYSCALL, for example, the idea is to inspect the arguments to the system call at the first stop, then do another PTRACE_SYSCALL and inspect the return value of the system call at the second stop. (addr is ignored.)
PTRACE_KILL
Sends the child a SIGKILL to terminate it. (addr and data are ignored.)
PTRACE_ATTACH
Attaches to the process specified in pid, making it a traced "child" of the current process; the behavior of the child is as if it had done a PTRACE_TRACEME. The current process actually becomes the parent of the child process for most purposes (e.g., it will receive notification of child events and appears in ps(1) output as the child's parent), but a getppid(2) by the child will still return the pid of the original parent. The child is sent a SIGSTOP, but will not necessarily have stopped by the completion of this call; use wait to wait for the child to stop. (addr and data are ignored.)
PTRACE_DETACH
Restarts the stopped child as for PTRACE_CONT, but first detaches from the process, undoing the reparenting effect of PTRACE_ATTACH, and the effects of PTRACE_TRACEME. Although perhaps not intended, under Linux a traced child can be detached in this way regardless of which method was used to initiate tracing. (addr is ignored.)
 

SEE ALSO

gdb(1), strace(1), execve(2), fork(2), signal(2), wait(2), exec(3)


Important: Use the man command (% man) to see how a command is used on your particular computer.

>> Linux/Unix Command Library

>> Shell Command Library

You can opt-out at any time. Please refer to our privacy policy for contact information.

Discuss in my forum

©2014 About.com. All rights reserved.