1. Tech

Your suggestion is on its way!

An email with a link to:

http://linux.about.com/library/cmd/blcmdl8_mkisofs.htm

was emailed to:

Thanks for sharing About.com with others!

Linux / Unix Command: mkisofs
Command Library

NAME

mkisofs - create an hybrid ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS filesystem with optional Rock Ridge attributes.  

SYNOPSIS

mkisofs [ options ] [ -o filename ] pathspec [pathspec ...]  

DESCRIPTION

mkisofs is effectively a pre-mastering program to generate an ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS hybrid filesystem.

mkisofs is capable of generating the System Use Sharing Protocol records (SUSP) specified by the Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol. This is used to further describe the files in the iso9660 filesystem to a unix host, and provides information such as longer filenames, uid/gid, posix permissions, symbolic links, block and character devices.

If Joliet or HFS hybrid command line options are specified, mkisofs will create additional filesystem meta data for Joliet or HFS. The file content in this case refers to the same data blocks on the media. It will generate a pure ISO9660 filesystem unless the Joliet or HFS hybrid command line options are given.

mkisofs can generate a true (or shared) HFS hybrid filesystem. The same files are seen as HFS files when accessed from a Macintosh and as ISO9660 files when accessed from other machines. HFS stands for Hierarchical File System and is the native file system used on Macintosh computers.

As an alternative, mkisofs can generate the Apple Extensions to ISO9660 for each file. These extensions provide each file with CREATOR, TYPE and certain Finder Flags when accessed from a Macintosh. See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below.

mkisofs takes a snapshot of a given directory tree, and generates a binary image which will correspond to an ISO9660 or HFS filesystem when written to a block device.

Each file written to the iso9660 filesystem must have a filename in the 8.3 format (8 characters, period, 3 characters, all upper case), even if Rock Ridge is in use. This filename is used on systems that are not able to make use of the Rock Ridge extensions (such as MS-DOS), and each filename in each directory must be different from the other filenames in the same directory. mkisofs generally tries to form correct names by forcing the unix filename to upper case and truncating as required, but often times this yields unsatisfactory results when there are cases where the truncated names are not all unique. mkisofs assigns weightings to each filename, and if two names that are otherwise the same are found the name with the lower priority is renamed to have a 3 digit number as an extension (where the number is guaranteed to be unique). An example of this would be the files foo.bar and foo.bar.~1~ - the file foo.bar.~1~ would be written as FOO000.BAR;1 and the file foo.bar would be written as FOO.BAR;1

When used with various HFS options, mkisofs will attempt to recognise files stored in a number of Apple/Unix file formats and will copy the data and resource forks as well as any relevant finder information. See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below for more about formats mkisofs supports.

Note that mkisofs is not designed to communicate with the writer directly. Most writers have proprietary command sets which vary from one manufacturer to another, and you need a specialized tool to actually burn the disk.

The cdrecord utility is a utility capable of burning an actual disc. The latest version of cdrecord is available from ftp://ftp.berlios.de/pub/cdrecord

Also you should know that most cd writers are very particular about timing. Once you start to burn a disc, you cannot let their buffer empty before you are done, or you will end up with a corrupt disc. Thus it is critical that you be able to maintain an uninterrupted data stream to the writer for the entire time that the disc is being written.

pathspec is the path of the directory tree to be copied into the iso9660 filesystem. Multiple paths can be specified, and mkisofs will merge the files found in all of the specified path components to form the cdrom image.

If the option -graft-points has been specified, it is possible to graft the paths at points other than the root directory, and it is possible to graft files or directories onto the cdrom image with names different than what they have in the source filesystem. This is easiest to illustrate with a couple of examples. Let's start by assuming that a local file ../old.lis exists, and you wish to include it in the cdrom image.

        foo/bar/=../old.lis

will include the file old.lis in the cdrom image at /foo/bar/old.lis, while

        foo/bar/xxx=../old.lis

will include the file old.lis in the cdrom image at /foo/bar/xxx. The same sort of syntax can be used with directories as well. mkisofs will create any directories required such that the graft points exist on the cdrom image - the directories do not need to appear in one of the paths. By default, any directories that are created on the fly like this will have permissions 0555 and appear to be owned by the person running mkisofs. If you wish other permissions or owners of the intermediate directories, see -uid, -gid, -dir-mode, -file-mode and -new-dir-mode.

mkisofs will also run on Win9X/NT4 machines when compiled with Cygnus' cygwin (available from http://sourceware.cygnus.com/cygwin/). Therefore most references in this man page to Unix can be replaced with Win32.

 

OPTIONS

-abstract FILE
Specifies the abstract file name. This parameter can also be set in the file .mkisofsrc with ABST=filename. If specified in both places, the command line version is used.
-A application_id
Specifies a text string that will be written into the volume header. This should describe the application that will be on the disc. There is space on the disc for 128 characters of information. This parameter can also be set in the file .mkisofsrc with APPI=id. If specified in both places, the command line version is used.
-allow-lowercase
This options allows lower case characters to appear in iso9660 filenames.
This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on some systems. Use with caution.
-allow-multidot
This options allows more than one dot to appear in iso9660 filenames. A leading dot is not affected by this option, it may be allowed separately using the -L option.
This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on many systems. Use with caution.
-biblio FILE
Specifies the bibliographic file name. This parameter can also be set in the file .mkisofsrc with BIBLO=filename. If specified in both places, the command line version is used.
-cache-inodes
Cache inode and device numbers to find hard links to files. If mkisofs finds a hard link (a file with multiple names), then the file will only appear once on the CD. This helps to save space on the CD. The option -cache-inodes is default on UNIX like operating systems. Be careful when using this option on a filesystem without unique inode numbers as it may result in files containing the wrong content on CD.
-no-cache-inodes
Do not cache inode and device numbers. This option is needed whenever a filesystem does not have unique inode numbers. It is the default on Cygwin. As the Microsoft operating system that runs below Cygwin is not POSIX compliant, it does not have unique inode numbers. Cygwin creates fake inode numbers from a hash algorithm that is not 100% correct. If mkisofs would cache inodes on Cygwin, it would believe that some files are identical although they are not. The result in this case are files that contain the wrong content if a significant amount of different files (> ~5000) is in inside the tree that is to be archived. This does not happen when the -no-cache-inodes is used, but the disadvantage is that mkisofs cannot detect hardlinks anymore and the resulting CD image may be larger than expected.
-b eltorito_boot_image
Specifies the path and filename of the boot image to be used when making an "El Torito" bootable CD. The pathname must be relative to the source path specified to mkisofs. This option is required to make an "El Torito" bootable CD. The boot image must be exactly the size of either a 1200, 1440, or a 2880 kB floppy, and mkisofs will use this size when creating the output iso9660 filesystem. It is assumed that the first 512 byte sector should be read from the boot image (it is essentially emulating a normal floppy drive). This will work, for example, if the boot image is a LILO based boot floppy.

If the boot image is not an image of a floppy, you need to add one of the options: -hard-disk-boot or -no-emul-boot. If the system should not boot off the emulated disk, use -no-boot.

-eltorito-alt-boot
Start with a new set of "El Torito" boot parameters. This allows to have more than one El Torito boot on a CD. A maximum of 63 El Torito boot entries may be put on a single CD.
-B img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e
Specifies a comma separated list of boot images that are needed to make a bootable CD for sparc systems. There may be empty fields in the comma separated list. This option is required to make a bootable CD for Sun sparc systems. If the -B or -sparc-boot option has been specified, the first sector of the resulting image will contain a Sun disk label. This disk label specifies slice 0 for the iso9660 image and slice 1 ... slice 7 for the boot images that have been specified with this option. Byte offset 512 ... 8191 within each of the additional boot images must contain a primary boot that works for the appropriate sparc architecture. The rest of each of the images usually contains an ufs filesystem that is used primary kernel boot stage.

The implemented boot method is the boot method found with SunOS 4.x and SunOS 5.x. However, it does not depend on SunOS internals but only on properties of the Open Boot prom. For this reason, it should be usable for any OS that boots off a sparc system.

If the special filename ... is used, the actual and all following boot partitions are mapped to the previous partition. If mkisofs is called with -G image -B ... all boot partitions are mapped to the partition that contains the iso9660 filesystem image and the generic boot image that is located in the first 16 sectors of the disk is used for all architectures.

-G generic_boot_image
Specifies the path and filename of the generic boot image to be used when making a generic bootable CD. The generic_boot_image will be placed on the first 16 sectors of the CD. The first 16 sectors are the sectors that are located before the iso9660 primary volume descriptor. If this option is used together with the -sparc-boot option, the Sun disk label will overlay the first 512 bytes of the generic boot image.
-hard-disk-boot
Specifies that the boot image used to create "El Torito" bootable CDs is a hard disk image. The hard disk image must begin with a master boot record that contains a single partition.
-no-emul-boot
Specifies that the boot image used to create "El Torito" bootable CDs is a 'no emulation' image. The system will load and execute this image without performing any disk emulation.
-no-boot
Specifies that the created "El Torito" CD should be marked as not bootable. The system will provide an emulated drive for the image, but will boot off a standard boot device.
-boot-load-seg segment_address
Specifies the load segment address of the boot image for no-emulation "El Torito" CDs.
-boot-load-size load_sectors
Specifies the number of "virtual" (512-byte) sectors to load in no-emulation mode. The default is to load the entire boot file. Some BIOSes may have problems if this is not a multiple of 4.
-boot-info-table
Specifies that a 56-byte table with information of the CD-ROM layout will be patched in at offset 8 in the boot file. If this option is given, the boot file is modified in the source filesystem, so make sure to make a copy if this file cannot be easily regenerated! See the EL TORITO BOOT INFO TABLE section for a description of this table.
-C last_sess_start,next_sess_start
This option is needed when mkisofs is used to create a CDextra or the image of a second session or a higher level session for a multi session disk. The option -C takes a pair of two numbers separated by a comma. The first number is the sector number of the first sector in the last session of the disk that should be appended to. The second number is the starting sector number of the new session. The expected pair of numbers may be retrieved by calling cdrecord -msinfo ... If the -C option is used in conjunction with the -M option, mkisofs will create a filesystem image that is intended to be a continuation of the previous session. If the -C option is used without the -M option, mkisofs will create a filesystem image that is intended to be used for a second session on a CDextra. This is a multi session CD that holds audio data in the first session and a ISO9660 filesystem in the second session.
-c boot_catalog
Specifies the path and filename of the boot catalog to be used when making an "El Torito" bootable CD. The pathname must be relative to the source path specified to mkisofs. This option is required to make a bootable CD. This file will be inserted into the output tree and not created in the source filesystem, so be sure the specified filename does not conflict with an existing file, as it will be excluded. Usually a name like "boot.catalog" is chosen.
-check-oldnames
Check all filenames imported from old session for compliance with actual mkisofs iso9660 file naming rules. It his option is not present, only names with a length > 31 are checked as these files are a hard violation of the iso9660 standard.
-check-session FILE
Check all old sessions for compliance with actual mkisofs iso9660 file naming rules. This is a high level option that is a combination of the options: -M FILE -C 0,0 -check-oldnames For the parameter FILE see description of -M option.
-copyright FILE
Specifies the Copyright file name. This parameter can also be set in the file .mkisofsrc with COPY=filename. If specified in both places, the command line version is used.
-d
Omit trailing period from files that do not have a period.
This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on many systems. Use with caution.
-D
Do not use deep directory relocation, and instead just pack them in the way we see them.
This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on many systems. Use with caution.
-dir-mode mode
Overrides the mode of directories used to create the image to mode. Specifying this option automatically enables Rock Ridge extensions.
-dvd-video
Generate DVD-Video compliant UDF file system. This is done by sorting the order of the content of the appropriate files and by adding padding between the files if needed.
-f
Follow symbolic links when generating the filesystem. When this option is not in use, symbolic links will be entered using Rock Ridge if enabled, otherwise the file will be ignored.
-file-mode mode
Overrides the mode of regular files used to create the image to mode. Specifying this option automatically enables Rock Ridge extensions.
-gid gid
Overrides the gid read from the source files to the value of gid. Specifying this option automatically enables Rock Ridge extensions.
-gui
Switch the behaviour for a GUI. This currently makes the output more verbose but may have other effects in future.
-graft-points
Allow to use graft points for filenames. If this option is used, all filenames are checked for graft points. The filename is divided at the first unescaped equal sign. All occurrences of '\\' and '=' characters must be escaped with '\\' if -graft-points has been specified.
-hide glob
Hide glob from being seen on the ISO9660 or Rock Ridge directory. glob is a shell wild-card-style pattern that must match any part of the filename or path. Multiple globs may be hidden. If glob matches a directory, then the contents of that directory will be hidden. In order to match a directory name, make sure the pathname does not include a trailing '/' character. All the hidden files will still be written to the output CD image file. Should be used with the -hide-joliet option. See README.hide for more details.
-hide-list file
A file containing a list of globs to be hidden as above.
-hidden glob
Add the hidden (existence) ISO9660 directory attribute for glob. This attribute will prevent glob from being listed on DOS based systems if the /A flag is not used for the listing. glob is a shell wild-card-style pattern that must match any part of the filename or path. In order to match a directory name, make sure the pathname does not include a trailing '/' character. Multiple globs may be hidden.
-hidden-list file
A file containing a list of globs to get the hidden attribute as above.
-hide-joliet glob
Hide glob from being seen on the Joliet directory. glob is a shell wild-card-style pattern that must match any part of the filename or path. Multiple globs may be hidden. If glob matches a directory, then the contents of that directory will be hidden. In order to match a directory name, make sure the pathname does not include a trailing '/' character. All the hidden files will still be written to the output CD image file. Should be used with the -hide option. See README.hide for more details.
-hide-joliet-list file
A file containing a list of globs to be hidden as above.
-hide-joliet-trans-tbl
Hide the TRANS.TBL files from the Joliet tree. These files usually don't make sense in the Joliet World as they list the real name and the ISO9660 name which may both be different from the Joliet name.
-hide-rr-moved
Rename the directory RR_MOVED to .rr_moved in the Rock Ridge tree. It seems to be impossible to completely hide the RR_MOVED directory from the Rock Ridge tree. This option only makes the visible tree better to understand for people who don't know what this directory is for. If you need to have no RR_MOVED directory at all, you should use the -D option. Note that in case that the -D option has been specified, the resulting filesystem is not ISO9660 level-1 compliant and will not be readable on MS-DOS. See also NOTES section for more information on the RR_MOVED directory.
-l
Allow full 31 character filenames. Normally the ISO9660 filename will be in an 8.3 format which is compatible with MS-DOS, even though the ISO9660 standard allows filenames of up to 31 characters. If you use this option, the disc may be difficult to use on a MS-DOS system, but this comes in handy on some other systems (such as the Amiga). Use with caution.
-input-charset charset
Input charset that defines the characters used in local file names. To get a list of valid charset names, call mkisofs -input-charset help. To get a 1:1 mapping, you may use default as charset name. The default initial values are cp437 on DOS based systems and iso8859-1 on all other systems. See CHARACTER SETS section below for more details.
-output-charset charset
Output charset that defines the characters that will be used in Rock Ridge file names. Defaults to the input charset. See CHARACTER SETS section below for more details.
-iso-level level
Set the iso9660 conformance level. Valid numbers are 1..3.

With level 1, files may only consist of one section and filenames are restricted to 8.3 characters.

With level 2, files may only consist of one section.

With level 3, no restrictions apply.

With all iso9660 levels all filenames are restricted to upper case letters, numbers and the underscore (_). The maximum filename length is restricted to 31 characters, the directory nesting level is restricted to 8 and the maximum path length is limited to 255 characters.

-J
Generate Joliet directory records in addition to regular iso9660 file names. This is primarily useful when the discs are to be used on Windows-NT or Windows-95 machines. The Joliet filenames are specified in Unicode and each path component can be up to 64 Unicode characters long. Note that Joliet is no standard - CD's that use only Joliet extensions but no standard Rock Ridge extensions may usually only be used on Microsoft Win32 systems. Furthermore, the fact that the filenames are limited to 64 characters and the fact that Joliet uses the UTF-16 coding for Unicode characters causes interoperability problems.
-joliet-long
Allow Joliet filenames to be up to 103 Unicode characters. This breaks the Joliet specification - but appears to work. Use with caution. The number 103 is derived from: the maximum Directory Record Length (254), minus the length of Directory Record (33), minus CD-ROM XA System Use Extension Information (14), divided by the UTF-16 character size (2).
-jcharset charset
Same as using -input-charset charset and -J options. See CHARACTER SETS section below for more details.
-L
Allow ISO9660 filenames to begin with a period. Usually, a leading dot is replaced with an underscore in order to maintain MS-DOS compatibility.
This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on many systems. Use with caution.
-log-file log_file
Redirect all error, warning and informational messages to log_file instead of the standard error.
-m glob
Exclude glob from being written to CDROM. glob is a shell wild-card-style pattern that must match part of the filename (not the path as with option -x). Technically glob is matched against the d->d_name part of the directory entry. Multiple globs may be excluded. Example:

mkisofs -o rom -m '*.o' -m core -m foobar

would exclude all files ending in ".o", called "core" or "foobar" to be copied to CDROM. Note that if you had a directory called "foobar" it too (and of course all its descendants) would be excluded.

NOTE: The -m and -x option description should both be updated, they are wrong. Both now work identical and use filename globbing. A file is excluded if either the last component matches or the whole path matches.

-exclude-list file
A file containing a list of globs to be exclude as above.
-max-iso9660-filenames
Allow 37 chars in iso9660 filenames. This option forces the -N option as the extra name space is taken from the space reserved for ISO-9660 version numbers.
This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on many systems. Although a conforming application needs to provide a buffer space of at least 37 characters, disks created with this option may cause a buffer overflow in the reading operating system. Use with extreme care.
-M path
or
-M device
Specifies path to existing iso9660 image to be merged. The alternate form takes a SCSI device specifier that uses the same syntax as the dev= parameter of cdrecord. The output of mkisofs will be a new session which should get written to the end of the image specified in -M. Typically this requires multi-session capability for the recorder and cdrom drive that you are attempting to write this image to. This option may only be used in conjunction with the -C option.
-N
Omit version numbers from ISO9660 file names.
This violates the ISO9660 standard, but no one really uses the version numbers anyway. Use with caution.
-new-dir-mode mode
Mode to use when creating new directories in the iso fs image. The default mode is 0555.
-nobak
-no-bak
Do not include backup files files on the iso9660 filesystem. If the -no-bak option is specified, files that contain the characters '~' or '#' or end in '.bak' will not be included (these are typically backup files for editors under unix).
-force-rr
Do not use the automatic Rock Ridge attributes recognition for previous sessions. This helps to show rotten iso9660 extension records as e.g. created by NERO burning ROM.
-no-rr
Do not use the Rock Ridge attributes from previous sessions. This may help to avoid getting into trouble when mkisofs finds illegal Rock Ridge signatures on an old session.
-no-split-symlink-components
Don't split the SL components, but begin a new Continuation Area (CE) instead. This may waste some space, but the SunOS 4.1.4 cdrom driver has a bug in reading split SL components (link_size = component_size instead of link_size += component_size).
-no-split-symlink-fields
Don't split the SL fields, but begin a new Continuation Area (CE) instead. This may waste some space, but the SunOS 4.1.4 and Solaris 2.5.1 cdrom driver have a bug in reading split SL fields (a `/' can be dropped).
-o filename
is the name of the file to which the iso9660 filesystem image should be written. This can be a disk file, a tape drive, or it can correspond directly to the device name of the optical disc writer. If not specified, stdout is used. Note that the output can also be a block special device for a regular disk drive, in which case the disk partition can be mounted and examined to ensure that the premastering was done correctly.
-pad
Pad the end of the ISO9660 by 16 sectors (32kB). If the total size then is not a multiple of 16 sectors, the needed number of sectors is added. If the option -B is used, then there is a second padding at the end of the boot partitions.

The padding is needed as many operating systems (e.g. Linux) implement read ahead bugs in their filesystem I/O. These bugs result in read errors on one or more files that are located at the end of a track. They are usually present when the CD is written in Track at Once mode or when the disk is written as mixed mode CD where an audio track follows the data track.

To avoid problems with I/O error on the last file on the filesystem, the -pad option has been made the default.

-no-pad
Do not Pad the end of the ISO9660 by 16 sectors (32kB).
-path-list file
A file containing a list of pathspec directories and filenames to be added to the ISO9660 filesystem. This list of pathspecs are processed after any that appear on the command line. If the argument is -, then the list is read from the standard input.
-P publisher_id
Specifies a text string that will be written into the volume header. This should describe the publisher of the CDROM, usually with a mailing address and phone number. There is space on the disc for 128 characters of information. This parameter can also be set in the file .mkisofsrc with PUBL=. If specified in both places, the command line version is used.
-p preparer_id
Specifies a text string that will be written into the volume header. This should describe the preparer of the CDROM, usually with a mailing address and phone number. There is space on the disc for 128 characters of information. This parameter can also be set in the file .mkisofsrc with PREP=. If specified in both places, the command line version is used.
-print-size
Print estimated filesystem size in multiples of the sector size (2048 bytes) and exit. This option is needed for Disk At Once mode and with some CD-R drives when piping directly into cdrecord. In this case it is needed to know the size of the filesystem before the actual CD-creation is done. The option -print-size allows to get this size from a "dry-run" before the CD is actually written. Old versions of mkisofs did write this information (among other information) to stderr. As this turns out to be hard to parse, the number without any other information is now printed on stdout too. If you like to write a simple shell script, redirect stderr and catch the number from stdout. This may be done with:

cdblocks=` mkisofs -print-size -quiet ... `

mkisofs ... | cdrecord ... tsize=${cdblocks}s -

-quiet
This makes mkisofs even less verbose. No progress output will be provided.
-R
Generate SUSP and RR records using the Rock Ridge protocol to further describe the files on the iso9660 filesystem.
-r
This is like the -R option, but file ownership and modes are set to more useful values. The uid and gid are set to zero, because they are usually only useful on the author's system, and not useful to the client. All the file read bits are set true, so that files and directories are globally readable on the client. If any execute bit is set for a file, set all of the execute bits, so that executables are globally executable on the client. If any search bit is set for a directory, set all of the search bits, so that directories are globally searchable on the client. All write bits are cleared, because the CD-Rom will be mounted read-only in any case. If any of the special mode bits are set, clear them, because file locks are not useful on a read-only file system, and set-id bits are not desirable for uid 0 or gid 0. When used on Win32, the execute bit is set on all files. This is a result of the lack of file permissions on Win32 and the Cygwin POSIX emulation layer. See also -uid -gid, -dir-mode, -file-mode and -new-dir-mode.
-relaxed-filenames
The option -relaxed-filenames allows ISO9660 filenames to include digits, uppercase characters and all other 7 bit ASCII characters (resp. anything except lowercase characters).
This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on many systems. Use with caution.
-sort sort file
Sort file locations on the media. Sorting is controlled by a file that contains pairs of filenames and sorting offset weighting. If the weighting is higher, the file will be located closer to the beginning of the media, if the weighting is lower, the file will be located closer to the end of the media. There must be only one space or tabs character between the filename and the weight and the weight must be the last characters on a line. The filename is taken to include all the characters up to, but not including the last space or tab character on a line. This is to allow for space characters to be in, or at the end of a filename. This option does not sort the order of the file names that appear in the ISO9660 directory. It sorts the order in which the file data is written to the CD image - which may be useful in order to optimize the data layout on a CD. See README.sort for more details.
-split-output
Split the output image into several files of approximately 1 GB. This helps to create DVD sized iso9660 images on operating systems without large file support. Cdrecord will concatenate more than one file into a single track if writing to a DVD. To make -split-output work, the -o filename option must be specified. The resulting outout images will be named: filename_00,filename_01,filename_02...
-sysid ID
Specifies the system ID. This parameter can also be set in the file .mkisofsrc with SYSI=system_id. If specified in both places, the command line version is used.
-T
Generate a file TRANS.TBL in each directory on the CDROM, which can be used on non-Rock Ridge capable systems to help establish the correct file names. There is also information present in the file that indicates the major and minor numbers for block and character devices, and each symlink has the name of the link file given.
-table-name TABLE_NAME
Alternative translation table file name (see above). Implies the -T option. If you are creating a multi-session image you must use the same name as in the previous session.
-ucs-level level
Set Unicode conformance level in the Joliet SVD. The default level is 3. It may be set to 1..3 using this option.
-udf
Include UDF support in the generated filesystem image. UDF support is currently in alpha status and for this reason, it is not possible to create UDF only images. UDF data structures are currently coupled to the Joliet structures, so there are many pitfalls with the current implementation. There is no UID/GID support, there is no POSIX permission support, there is no support for symlinks. Note that UDF wastes the space from sector ~20 to sector 256 at the beginning of the disk in addition to the spcae needed for real UDF data structures.
-uid uid
Overrides the uid read from the source files to the value of uid. Specifying this option automatically enables Rock Ridge extensions.
-use-fileversion
The option -use-fileversion allows mkisofs to use file version numbers from the filesystem. If the option is not specified, mkisofs creates a version if 1 for all files. File versions are strings in the range ;1 to ;32767 This option is the default on VMS.
-U
Allows "Untranslated" filenames, completely violating the iso9660 standards described above. Forces on the -d, -l, -L, -N, -relaxed-filenames, -allow-lowercase, -allow-multidot and -no-iso-translate flags. It allows more than one '.' character in the filename, as well as mixed case filenames. This is useful on HP-UX system, where the built-in CDFS filesystem does not recognize ANY extensions. Use with extreme caution.
-no-iso-translate
Do not translate the characters '#' and '~' which are invalid for iso9660 filenames. These characters are though invalid often used by Microsoft systems.
This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on many systems. Use with caution.
-V volid
Specifies the volume ID (volume name or label) to be written into the master block. This parameter can also be set in the file .mkisofsrc with VOLI=id. If specified in both places, the command line version is used. Note that if you assign a volume ID, this is the name that will be used as the mount point used by the Solaris volume management system and the name that is assigned to the disc on a Microsoft Win32 or Apple Mac platform.
-volset ID
Specifies the volset ID. This parameter can also be set in the file .mkisofsrc with VOLS=volset_id. If specified in both places, the command line version is used.
-volset-size #
Sets the volume set size to #. The volume set size is the number of CD's that are in a CD set. The -volset-size option may be used to create CD's that are part of e.g. a Operation System installation set of CD's. The option -volset-size must be specified before -volset-seqno on each command line.
-volset-seqno #
Sets the volume set sequence number to #. The volume set sequence number is the index number of the current CD in a CD set. The option -volset-size must be specified before -volset-seqno on each command line.
-v
Verbose execution. If given twice on the command line, extra debug information will be printed.
-x path
Exclude path from being written to CDROM. path must be the complete pathname that results from concatenating the pathname given as command line argument and the path relative to this directory. Multiple paths may be excluded. Example:

mkisofs -o cd -x /local/dir1 -x /local/dir2 /local

NOTE: The -m and -x option description should both be updated, they are wrong. Both now work identical and use filename globbing. A file is excluded if either the last component matches or the whole path matches.

-z
Generate special RRIP records for transparently compressed files. This is only of use and interest for hosts that support transparent decompression, such as Linux 2.4.14 or later. You must specify the -R or -r options to enable RockRidge, and generate compressed files using the mkzftree utility before running mkisofs. Note that transparent compression is a nonstandard Rock Ridge extension. The resulting disks are only transparently readable if used on Linux. On other operating systems you will need to call mkzftree by hand to decompress the files.

 

HFS OPTIONS

-hfs
Create an ISO9660/HFS hybrid CD. This option should be used in conjunction with the -map, -magic and/or the various double dash options given below.
-apple
Create an ISO9660 CD with Apple's extensions. Similar to the -hfs option, except that the Apple Extensions to ISO9660 are added instead of creating an HFS hybrid volume.
-map mapping_file
Use the mapping_file to set the CREATOR and TYPE information for a file based on the filename's extension. A filename is mapped only if it is not one of the know Apple/Unix file formats. See the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below.
-magic magic_file
The CREATOR and TYPE information is set by using a file's magic number (usually the first few bytes of a file). The magic_file is only used if a file is not one of the known Apple/Unix file formats, or the filename extension has not been mapped using the -map option. See the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below for more details.
-hfs-creator CREATOR
Set the default CREATOR for all files. Must be exactly 4 characters. See the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below for more details.
-hfs-type TYPE
Set the default TYPE for all files. Must be exactly 4 characters. See the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below for more details.
-probe
Search the contents of files for all the known Apple/Unix file formats. See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below for more about these formats. However, the only way to check for MacBinary and AppleSingle files is to open and read them. Therefore this option may increase processing time. It is better to use one or more double dash options given below if the Apple/Unix formats in use are known.
-no-desktop
Do not create (empty) Desktop files. New HFS Desktop files will be created when the CD is used on a Macintosh (and stored in the System Folder). By default, empty Desktop files are added to the HFS volume.
-mac-name
Use the HFS filename as the starting point for the ISO9660, Joliet and Rock Ridge file names. See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE NAMES section below for more information.
-boot-hfs-file driver_file
Installs the driver_file that may make the CD bootable on a Macintosh. See the HFS BOOT DRIVER section below. (Alpha).
-part
Generate an HFS partition table. By default, no partition table is generated, but some older Macintosh CDROM drivers need an HFS partition table on the CDROM to be able to recognize a hybrid CDROM.
-auto AutoStart_file
Make the HFS CD use the QuickTime 2.0 Autostart feature to launch an application or document. The given filename must be the name of a document or application located at the top level of the CD. The filename must be less than 12 characters. (Alpha).
-cluster-size size
Set the size in bytes of the cluster or allocation units of PC Exchange files. Implies the --exchange option. See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below.
-hide-hfs glob
Hide glob from the HFS volume. The file or directory will still exist in the ISO9660 and/or Joliet directory. glob is a shell wild-card-style pattern that must match any part of the filename Multiple globs may be excluded. Example:

mkisofs -o rom -hfs -hide-hfs '*.o' -hide-hfs foobar

would exclude all files ending in ".o" or called "foobar" from the HFS volume. Note that if you had a directory called "foobar" it too (and of course all its descendants) would be excluded. The glob can also be a path name relative to the source directories given on the command line. Example:

mkisofs -o rom -hfs -hide-hfs src/html src

would exclude just the file or directory called "html" from the "src" directory. Any other file or directory called "html" in the tree will not be excluded. Should be used with the -hide and/or -hide-joliet options. In order to match a directory name, make sure the pathname does not include a trailing '/' character. See README.hide for more details.

-hide-hfs-list file
A file containing a list of globs to be hidden as above.
-hfs-volid hfs_volid
Volume name for the HFS partition. This is the name that is assigned to the disc on a Macintosh and replaces the volid used with the -V option
-icon-position
Use the icon position information, if it exists, from the Apple/Unix file. The icons will appear in the same position as they would on a Macintosh desktop. Folder location and size on screen, its scroll positions, folder View (view as Icons, Small Icons, etc.) are also preserved. This option may become set by default in the future. (Alpha).
-root-info file
Set the location, size on screen, scroll positions, folder View etc. for the root folder of an HFS volume. See README.rootinfo for more information. (Alpha)
-prep-boot FILE
PReP boot image file. Up to 4 are allowed. See README.prep_boot (Alpha)
-input-hfs-charset charset
Input charset that defines the characters used in HFS file names when used with the -mac-name option. The default charset is cp10000 (Mac Roman) cp10000 (Mac Roman) See CHARACTER SETS and HFS MACINTOSH FILE NAMES sections below for more details.
-output-hfs-charset charset
Output charset that defines the characters that will be used in the HFS file names. Defaults to the input charset. See CHARACTER SETS section below for more details.
-hfs-unlock
By default, mkisofs will create an HFS volume that is locked. This option leaves the volume unlocked so that other applications (e.g. hfsutils) can modify the volume. See the HFS PROBLEMS/LIMITATIONS section below for warnings about using this option.
-hfs-bless folder_name
"Bless" the given directory (folder). This is usually the System Folder and is used in creating HFS bootable CDs. The name of the directory must be the whole path name as mkisofs sees it. e.g. if the given pathspec is ./cddata and the required folder is called System Folder, then the whole path name is "./cddata/System Folder" (remember to use quotes if the name contains spaces).
-hfs-parms PARAMETERS
Override certain parameters used to create the HFS file system. Unlikely to be used in normal circumstances. See the libhfs_iso/hybrid.h source file for details.
--cap
Look for AUFS CAP Macintosh files. Search for CAP Apple/Unix file formats only. Searching for the other possible Apple/Unix file formats is disabled, unless other double dash options are given.
--netatalk
Look for NETATALK Macintosh files
--double
Look for AppleDouble Macintosh files
--ethershare
Look for Helios EtherShare Macintosh files
--ushare
Look for IPT UShare Macintosh files
--exchange
Look for PC Exchange Macintosh files
--sgi
Look for SGI Macintosh files
--xinet
Look for XINET Macintosh files
--macbin
Look for MacBinary Macintosh files
--single
Look for AppleSingle Macintosh files
--dave
Look for Thursby Software Systems DAVE Macintosh files
--sfm
Look for Microsoft's Services for Macintosh files (NT only) (Alpha)
--osx-double
Look for MacOS X AppleDouble Macintosh files
--osx-hfs
Look for MacOS X HFS Macintosh files

 

CHARACTER SETS

mkisofs processes file names in a POSIX compliant way as strings of 8-bit characters. To represent all codings for all languages, 8-bit characters are not sufficient. Unicode or ISO-10646 define character codings that need at least 21 bits to represent all known languages. They may be represented with UTF-32, UTF-16 or UTF-8 coding. UTF-32 uses a plain 32-bit coding but seems to be uncommon. UTF-16 is used by Microsoft with Win32 with the disadvantage that it only supports a subset of all codes and that 16-bit characters are not compliant with the POSIX filesystem interface.

Modern UNIX operating systems may use UTF-8 coding for filenames. This coding allows to use the complete Unicode code set. Each 32-bit character is represented by one or more 8-bit characters. If a character is coded in ISO-8859-1 (used in Central Europe and North America) is maps 1:1 to a UTF-32 or UTF-16 coded Unicode character. If a character is coded in 7-Bit ASCII (used in USA and other countries with limted character set) is maps 1:1 to a UTF-32, UTF-16 or UTF-8 coded Unicode character. Character codes that cannot be represented as a single byte in UTF-8 (typically if the value is > 0x7F) use escape sequences that map to more than one 8-bit character.

If all operating systems would use UTF-8 coding, mkisofs would not need to recode characters in file names. Unfortunately, Apple uses completely nonstandard codings and Microsoft uses a Unicode coding that is not compatible with the POSIX filename interface.

For all non UTF-8 coded operating systems, the actual character that each byte represents depends on the character set or codepage (which is the name used by Microsoft) used by the local operating system in use - the characters in a character set will reflect the region or natural language used by the user.

Usually character codes 0x00-0x1f are control characters, codes 0x20-0x7f are the 7 bit ASCII characters and (on PC's and Mac's) 0x80-0xff are used for other characters. Unfortunately even this does not follow ISO standards that reserve the range 0x80-0x9f for control characters and only allow 0xa0-0xff for other characters.

As there is a lot more than 256 characters/symbols in use, only a small subset are represented in a character set. Therefore the same character code may represent a different character in different character sets. So a file name generated, say in central Europe, may not display the same character when viewed on a machine in, say eastern Europe.

To make matters more complicated, different operating systems use different character sets for the region or language. For example the character code for "small e with acute accent" may be character code 0x82 on a PC, code 0x8e on a Macintosh and code 0xe9 on a UNIX system. Note while the codings used on a PC or Mac are nonstandard, Unicode codes this character as 0x00000000e9 which is basically the same value as the value used by most UNIX systems.

As long as not all operating systems and applications will use the Unicode character set as the basis for file names in a unique way, it may be necessary to specify which character set your file names use in and which character set the file names should appear on the CD.

There are four options to specify the character sets you want to use:

-input-charset
Defines the local character set you are using on your host machine. Any character set conversions that take place will use this character set as the staring point. The default input character sets are cp437 on DOS based systems and iso8859-1 on all other systems.

If the -J option is given, then the Unicode equivalents of the input character set will be used in the Joliet directory. Using the -jcharset option is the same as using the -input-charset and -J options.

-output-charset
Defines the character set that will be used with for the Rock Ridge names on the CD. Defaults to the input character set. Only likely to be useful if used on a non-Unix platform. e.g. using mkisofs on a Microsoft Win32 machine to create Rock Ridge CDs. If you are using mkisofs on a Unix machine, it is likely that the output character set will be the same as the input character set.
-input-hfs-charset
Defines the HFS character set used for HFS file names decoded from any of the various Apple/Unix file formats. Only useful when used with -mac-name option. See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE NAMES for more information. Defaults to cp10000 (Mac Roman).
-output-hfs-charset
Defines the HFS character set used to create HFS file names from the input character set in use. In most cases this will be from the character set given with the -input-charset option. Defaults to the input HFS character set.

There are a number of character sets built in to mkisofs. To get a listing, use mkisofs -input-charset help.

Additional character sets can be read from file for any of the character set options by giving a filename as the argument to the options. The given file will only be read if its name does not match one of the built in character sets.

The format of the character set files is the same as the mapping files available from http://www.unicode.org/Public/MAPPINGS The format of these files is:

        Column #1 is the input byte code (in hex as 0xXX)

       Column #2 is the Unicode (in hex as 0xXXXX)

       Rest of the line is ignored.

Any blank line, line without two (or more) columns in the above format or comments lines (starting with the # character) are ignored without any warnings. Any missing input code is mapped to Unicode character 0x0000.

Note that there is no support for 16 bit UNICODE (UTF-16) or 32 bit UNICODE (UTF-32) coding because this coding is not POSIX compliant. There should be support for UTF-8 UNICODE coding which is compatible to POSIX filenames and supported by moder UNIX implementations such as Solaris.

A 1:1 character set mapping can be defined by using the keyword default as the argument to any of the character set options. This is the behaviour of older (v1.12) versions of mkisofs.

The ISO9660 file names generated from the input filenames are not converted from the input character set. The ISO9660 character set is a very limited subset of the ASCII characters, so any conversion would be pointless.

Any character that mkisofs can not convert will be replaced with a '_' character.

 

HFS CREATOR/TYPE

A Macintosh file has two properties associated with it which define which application created the file, the CREATOR and what data the file contains, the TYPE. Both are (exactly) 4 letter strings. Usually this allows a Macintosh user to double-click on a file and launch the correct application etc. The CREATOR and TYPE of a particular file can be found by using something like ResEdit (or similar) on a Macintosh.

The CREATOR and TYPE information is stored in all the various Apple/Unix encoded files. For other files it is possible to base the CREATOR and TYPE on the filename's extension using a mapping file (the -map option) and/or using the magic number (usually a signature in the first few bytes) of a file (the -magic option). If both these options are given, then their order on the command line is important. If the -map option is given first, then a filename extension match is attempted before a magic number match. However, if the -magic option is given first, then a magic number match is attempted before a filename extension match.

If a mapping or magic file is not used, or no match is found then the default CREATOR and TYPE for all regular files can be set by using entries in the .mkisofsrc file or using the -hfs-creator and/or -hfs-type options, otherwise the default CREATOR and TYPE are 'unix' and 'TEXT'.

The format of the mapping file is the same afpfile format as used by aufs. This file has five columns for the extension, file translation, CREATOR, TYPE and Comment. Lines starting with the '#' character are comment lines and are ignored. An example file would be like:

# Example filename mapping file
#
# EXTNXLateCREATORTYPEComment
.tifRaw'8BIM''TIFF'"Photoshop TIFF image"
.hqxAscii'BnHq''TEXT'"BinHex file"
.docRaw'MSWD''WDBN'"Word file"
.movRaw'TVOD''MooV'"QuickTime Movie"
*Ascii'ttxt''TEXT'"Text file"

Where:

The first column EXTN defines the Unix filename extension to be mapped. The default mapping for any filename extension that doesn't match is defined with the "*" character.
The Xlate column defines the type of text translation between the Unix and Macintosh file it is ignored by mkisofs, but is kept to be compatible with aufs(1). Although mkisofs does not alter the contents of a file, if a binary file has it's TYPE set as 'TEXT', it may be read incorrectly on a Macintosh. Therefore a better choice for the default TYPE may be '????'
The CREATOR and TYPE keywords must be 4 characters long and enclosed in single quotes.
The comment field is enclosed in double quotes - it is ignored by mkisofs, but is kept to be compatible with aufs.

The format of the magic file is almost identical to the magic(4) file used by the Linux file(1) command - the routines for reading and decoding the magic file are based on the Linux file(1) command.

This file has four tab separated columns for the byte offset, type, test and message. Lines starting with the '#' character are comment lines and are ignored. An example file would be like:

# Example magic file
#
# offtypetestmessage
0stringGIF88BIM GIFf GIF image
0beshort0xffd88BIM JPEG image data
0stringSIT!SIT! SIT! StuffIt Archive
0string\037\235LZIV ZIVU standard unix compress
0string\037\213GNUz ZIVU gzip compressed data
0string%!ASPS TEXT Postscript
0string\004%!ASPS TEXT PC Postscript with a ^D to start
4stringmoovtxtt MooV QuickTime movie file (moov)
4stringmdattxtt MooV QuickTime movie file (mdat)

The format of the file is described in the magic(4) man page. The only difference here is that for each entry in the magic file, the message for the initial offset must be 4 characters for the CREATOR followed by 4 characters for the TYPE - white space is optional between them. Any other characters on this line are ignored. Continuation lines (starting with a '>') are also ignored i.e. only the initial offset lines are used.

Using the -magic option may significantly increase processing time as each file has to opened and read to find it's magic number.

In summary, for all files, the default CREATOR is 'unix' and the default TYPE is 'TEXT'. These can be changed by using entries in the .mkisofsrc file or by using the -hfs-creator and/or -hfs-type options.

If the a file is in one of the known Apple/Unix formats (and the format has been selected), then the CREATOR and TYPE are taken from the values stored in the Apple/Unix file.

Other files can have their CREATOR and TYPE set from their file name extension (the -map option), or their magic number (the -magic option). If the default match is used in the mapping file, then these values override the default CREATOR and TYPE.

A full CREATOR/TYPE database can be found at http://www.angelfire.com/il/szekely/index.html

 

HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS

Macintosh files have two parts called the Data and Resource fork. Either may be empty. Unix (and many other OSs) can only cope with files having one part (or fork). To add to this, Macintosh files have a number of attributes associated with them - probably the most important are the TYPE and CREATOR. Again Unix has no concept of these types of attributes.

e.g. a Macintosh file may be a JPEG image where the image is stored in the Data fork and a desktop thumbnail stored in the Resource fork. It is usually the information in the data fork that is useful across platforms.

Therefore to store a Macintosh file on a Unix filesystem, a way has to be found to cope with the two forks and the extra attributes (which are referred to as the finder info). Unfortunately, it seems that every software package that stores Macintosh files on Unix has chosen a completely different storage method.

The Apple/Unix formats that mkisofs (partially) supports are:

CAP AUFS format
Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork in subdirectory .resource with same filename as data fork. Finder info in .finderinfo subdirectory with same filename.
AppleDouble/Netatalk
Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork stored in a file with same name prefixed with "%". Finder info also stored in same "%" file. Netatalk uses the same format, but the resource fork/finderinfo stored in subdirectory .AppleDouble with same name as data fork.
AppleSingle
Data structures similar to above, except both forks and finder info are stored in one file.
Helios EtherShare
Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork and finder info together in subdirectory .rsrc with same filename as data fork.
IPT UShare
Very similar to the EtherShare format, but the finder info is stored slightly differently.
MacBinary
Both forks and finder info stored in one file.
Apple PC Exchange
Used by Macintoshes to store Apple files on DOS (FAT) disks. Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork in subdirectory resource.frk (or RESOURCE.FRK). Finder info as one record in file finder.dat (or FINDER.DAT). Separate finder.dat for each data fork directory.
Note: mkisofs needs to know the native FAT cluster size of the disk that the PC Exchange files are on (or have been copied from). This size is given by the -cluster-size option. The cluster or allocation size can be found by using the DOS utility CHKDSK.
May not work with PC Exchange v2.2 or higher files (available with MacOS 8.1). DOS media containing PC Exchange files should be mounted as type msdos (not vfat) when using Linux.
SGI/XINET
Used by SGI machines when they mount HFS disks. Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork in subdirectory .HSResource with same name. Finder info as one record in file .HSancillary. Separate .HSancillary for each data fork directory.
Thursby Software Systems DAVE
Allows Macintoshes to store Apple files on SMB servers. Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork in subdirectory resource.frk. Uses the AppleDouble format to store resource fork.
Services for Macintosh
Format of files stored by NT Servers on NTFS filesystems. Data fork is stored as "filename". Resource fork stored as a NTFS stream called "filename:AFP_Resource". The finder info is stored as a NTFS stream called "filename:Afp_AfpInfo". These streams are normally invisible to the user.
Warning: mkisofs only partially supports the SFM format. If an HFS file or folder stored on the NT server contains an illegal NT character in its name, then NT converts these characters to Private Use Unicode characters. The characters are: " * / < > ?  | also a space or period if it is the last character of the file name, character codes 0x01 to 0x1f (control characters) and Apple' apple logo.
Unfortunately, these private Unicode characters are not readable by the mkisofs NT executable. Therefore any file or directory name containing these characters will be ignored - including the contents of any such directory.
MacOS X AppleDouble
When HFS/HFS+ files are copied or saved by MacOS X on to a non-HFS file system (e.g. UFS, NFS etc.), the files are stored in AppleDouble format. Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork stored in a file with same name prefixed with "._". Finder info also stored in same "._" file.
MacOS X HFS (Alpha)
Not really an Apple/Unix encoding, but actual HFS/HFS+ files on a MacOS X system. Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork stored in a pseudo file with the same name with the suffix '/rsrc'. The finderinfo is only available via a MacOS X library call.
Notes: (also see README.macosx)
Only works when used on MacOS X.
If a file is found with a zero length resource fork and empty finderinfo, it is assumed not to have any Apple/Unix encoding - therefore a TYPE and CREATOR can be set using other methods.

mkisofs will attempt to set the CREATOR, TYPE, date and possibly other flags from the finder info. Additionally, if it exists, the Macintosh filename is set from the finder info, otherwise the Macintosh name is based on the Unix filename - see the HFS MACINTOSH FILE NAMES section below.

When using the -apple option, the TYPE and CREATOR are stored in the optional System Use or SUSP field in the ISO9660 Directory Record - in much the same way as the Rock Ridge attributes are. In fact to make life easy, the Apple extensions are added at the beginning of the existing Rock Ridge attributes (i.e. to get the Apple extensions you get the Rock Ridge extensions as well).

The Apple extensions require the resource fork to be stored as an ISO9660 associated file. This is just like any normal file stored in the ISO9660 filesystem except that the associated file flag is set in the Directory Record (bit 2). This file has the same name as the data fork (the file seen by non-Apple machines). Associated files are normally ignored by other OSs

When using the -hfs option, the TYPE and CREATOR plus other finder info, are stored in a separate HFS directory, not visible on the ISO9660 volume. The HFS directory references the same data and resource fork files described above.

In most cases, it is better to use the -hfs option instead of the -apple option, as the latter imposes the limited ISO9660 characters allowed in filenames. However, the Apple extensions do give the advantage that the files are packed on the disk more efficiently and it may be possible to fit more files on a CD - important when the total size of the source files is approaching 650MB.

 

HFS MACINTOSH FILE NAMES

Where possible, the HFS filename that is stored with an Apple/Unix file is used for the HFS part of the CD. However, not all the Apple/Unix encodings store the HFS filename with the finderinfo. In these cases, the Unix filename is used - with escaped special characters. Special characters include '/' and characters with codes over 127.

Aufs escapes these characters by using ":" followed by the character code as two hex digits. Netatalk and EtherShare have a similar scheme, but uses "%" instead of a ":".

If mkisofs can't find an HFS filename, then it uses the Unix name, with any %xx or :xx characters (xx == two hex digits) converted to a single character code. If "xx" are not hex digits ([0-9a-fA-F]), then they are left alone - although any remaining ":" is converted to "%" as colon is the HFS directory separator. Care must be taken, as an ordinary Unix file with %xx or :xx will also be converted. e.g.

This:2fFileconverted to This/File

This:Fileconverted to This%File

This:t7Fileconverted to This%t7File

Although HFS filenames appear to support upper and lower case letters, the filesystem is case insensitive. i.e. the filenames "aBc" and "AbC" are the same. If a file is found in a directory with the same HFS name, then mkisofs will attempt, where possible, to make a unique name by adding '_' characters to one of the filenames.

If an HFS filename exists for a file, then mkisofs can use this name as the starting point for the ISO9660, Joliet and Rock Ridge filenames using the -mac-name option. Normal Unix files without an HFS name will still use their Unix name. e.g.

If a MacBinary (or PC Exchange) file is stored as someimage.gif.bin on the Unix filesystem, but contains a HFS file called someimage.gif, then this is the name that would appear on the HFS part of the CD. However, as mkisofs uses the Unix name as the starting point for the other names, then the ISO9660 name generated will probably be SOMEIMAG.BIN and the Joliet/Rock Ridge would be someimage.gif.bin. Although the actual data (in this case) is a GIF image. This option will use the HFS filename as the starting point and the ISO9660 name will probably be SOMEIMAG.GIF and the Joliet/Rock Ridge would be someimage.gif.

Using the -mac-name option will not currently work with the -T option - the Unix name will be used in the TRANS.TBL file, not the Macintosh name.

The character set used to convert any HFS file name to a Joliet/Rock Ridge file name defaults to cp10000 (Mac Roman). The character set used can be specified using the -input-hfs-charset option. Other built in HFS character sets are: cp10006 (MacGreek), cp10007 (MacCyrillic), cp10029 (MacLatin2), cp10079 (MacIcelandandic) and cp10081 (MacTurkish).

Note: the character codes used by HFS file names taken from the various Apple/Unix formats will not be converted as they are assumed to be in the correct Apple character set. Only the Joliet/Rock Ridge names derived from the HFS file names will be converted.

The existing mkisofs code will filter out any illegal characters for the ISO9660 and Joliet filenames, but as mkisofs expects to be dealing directly with Unix names, it leaves the Rock Ridge names as is. But as '/' is a legal HFS filename character, the -mac-name option converts '/' to a '_' in Rock Ridge filenames.

If the Apple extensions are used, then only the ISO9660 filenames will appear on the Macintosh. However, as the Macintosh ISO9660 drivers can use Level 2 filenames, then you can use options like -allow-multidot without problems on a Macintosh - still take care over the names, for example this.file.name will be converted to THIS.FILE i.e. only have one '.', also filename abcdefgh will be seen as ABCDEFGH but abcdefghi will be seen as ABCDEFGHI. i.e. with a '.' at the end - don't know if this is a Macintosh problem or mkisofs/mkhybrid problem. All filenames will be in uppercase when viewed on a Macintosh. Of course, DOS/Win3.X machines will not be able to see Level 2 filenames...

 

HFS CUSTOM VOLUME/FOLDER ICONS

To give a HFS CD a custom icon, make sure the root (top level) folder includes a standard Macintosh volume icon file. To give a volume a custom icon on a Macintosh, an icon has to be pasted over the volume's icon in the "Get Info" box of the volume. This creates an invisible file called 'Icon\r' ('\r' is the 'carriage return' character) in the root folder. A custom folder icon is very similar - an invisible file called 'Icon\r' exits in the folder itself. Probably the easiest way to create a custom icon that mkisofs can use, is to format a blank HFS floppy disk on a Mac, paste an icon to its "Get Info" box. If using Linux with the HFS module installed, mount the floppy using something like:

        mount -t hfs /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy

The floppy will be mounted as a CAP file system by default. Then run mkisofs using something like:

        mkisofs --cap -o output source_dir /mnt/floppy

If you are not using Linux, then you can use the hfsutils to copy the icon file from the floppy. However, care has to be taken, as the icon file contains a control character. e.g.

        hmount /dev/fd0

       hdir -a

       hcopy -m Icon^V^M icon_dir/icon

Where '^V^M' is control-V followed by control-M. Then run mkisofs by using something like:

        mkisofs --macbin -o output source_dir icon_dir

The procedure for creating/using custom folder icons is very similar - paste an icon to folder's "Get Info" box and transfer the resulting 'Icon\r' file to the relevant directory in the mkisofs source tree.

You may want to hide the icon files from the ISO9660 and Joliet trees.

To give a custom icon to a Joliet CD, follow the instructions found at: http://www.fadden.com/cdrfaq/faq03.html#[3-21]

 

HFS BOOT DRIVER

It may be possible to make the hybrid CD bootable on a Macintosh.

A bootable HFS CD requires an Apple CD-ROM (or compatible) driver, a bootable HFS partition and the necessary System, Finder, etc. files.

A driver can be obtained from any other Macintosh bootable CD-ROM using the apple_driver utility. This file can then be used with the -boot-hfs-file option.

The HFS partition (i.e. the hybrid disk in our case) must contain a suitable System Folder, again from another CD-ROM or disk.

For a partition to be bootable, it must have it's boot block set. The boot block is in the first two blocks of a partition. For a non-bootable partition the boot block is full of zeros. Normally, when a System file is copied to partition on a Macintosh disk, the boot block is filled with a number of required settings - unfortunately I don't know the full spec for the boot block, so I'm guessing that the following will work OK.

Therefore, the utility apple_driver also extracts the boot block from the first HFS partition it finds on the given CD-ROM and this is used for the HFS partition created by mkisofs.

PLEASE NOTE
By using a driver from an Apple CD and copying Apple software to your CD, you become liable to obey Apple Computer, Inc. Software License Agreements.
 

EL TORITO BOOT INFORMATION TABLE

When the -boot-info-table option is given, mkisofs will modify the boot file specified by the -b option by inserting a 56-byte "boot information table" at offset 8 in the file. This modification is done in the source filesystem, so make sure you use a copy if this file is not easily recreated! This file contains pointers which may not be easily or reliably obtained at boot time.

The format of this table is as follows; all integers are in section 7.3.1 ("little endian") format.

Offset    Name           Size      Meaning
 8        bi_pvd         4 bytes   LBA of primary volume descriptor
12        bi_file        4 bytes   LBA of boot file
16        bi_length      4 bytes   Boot file length in bytes
20        bi_csum        4 bytes   32-bit checksum
24        bi_reserved    40 bytes  Reserved

The 32-bit checksum is the sum of all the 32-bit words in the boot file starting at byte offset 64. All linear block addresses (LBAs) are given in CD sectors (normally 2048 bytes).  

CONFIGURATION

mkisofs looks for the .mkisofsrc file, first in the current working directory, then in the user's home directory, and then in the directory in which the mkisofs binary is stored. This file is assumed to contain a series of lines of the form TAG=value, and in this way you can specify certain options. The case of the tag is not significant. Some fields in the volume header are not settable on the command line, but can be altered through this facility. Comments may be placed in this file, using lines which start with a hash (#) character.
APPI
The application identifier should describe the application that will be on the disc. There is space on the disc for 128 characters of information. May be overridden using the -A command line option.
COPY
The copyright information, often the name of a file on the disc containing the copyright notice. There is space in the disc for 37 characters of information. May be overridden using the -copyright command line option.
ABST
The abstract information, often the name of a file on the disc containing an abstract. There is space in the disc for 37 characters of information. May be overridden using the -abstract command line option.
BIBL
The bibliographic information, often the name of a file on the disc containing a bibliography. There is space in the disc for 37 characters of information. May be overridden using the -bilio command line option.
PREP
This should describe the preparer of the CDROM, usually with a mailing address and phone number. There is space on the disc for 128 characters of information. May be overridden using the -p command line option.
PUBL
This should describe the publisher of the CDROM, usually with a mailing address and phone number. There is space on the disc for 128 characters of information. May be overridden using the -P command line option.
SYSI
The System Identifier. There is space on the disc for 32 characters of information. May be overridden using the -sysid command line option.
VOLI
The Volume Identifier. There is space on the disc for 32 characters of information. May be overridden using the -V command line option.
VOLS
The Volume Set Name. There is space on the disc for 128 characters of information. May be overridden using the -volset command line option.
HFS_TYPE
The default TYPE for Macintosh files. Must be exactly 4 characters. May be overridden using the -hfs-type command line option.
HFS_CREATOR
The default CREATOR for Macintosh files. Must be exactly 4 characters. May be overridden using the -hfs-creator command line option.

mkisofs can also be configured at compile time with defaults for many of these fields. See the file defaults.h.

 

EXAMPLES

To create a vanilla ISO-9660 filesystem image in the file cd.iso, where the directory cd_dir will become the root directory if the CD, call:

% mkisofs -o cd.iso cd_dir

To create a CD with Rock Ridge extensions of the source directory cd_dir:

% mkisofs -o cd.iso -R cd_dir

To create a CD with Rock Ridge extensions of the source directory cd_dir where all files have at least read permission and all files are owned by root, call:

% mkisofs -o cd.iso -r cd_dir

To create a HFS hybrid CD with the Joliet and Rock Ridge extensions of the source directory cd_dir:

% mkisofs -o cd.iso -R -J -hfs cd_dir

To create a HFS hybrid CD from the source directory cd_dir that contains Netatalk Apple/Unix files:

% mkisofs -o cd.iso --netatalk cd_dir

To create a HFS hybrid CD from the source directory cd_dir, giving all files CREATOR and TYPES based on just their filename extensions listed in the file "mapping".:

% mkisofs -o cd.iso -map mapping cd_dir

To create a CD with the 'Apple Extensions to ISO9660', from the source directories cd_dir and another_dir. Files in all the known Apple/Unix format are decoded and any other files are given CREATOR and TYPE based on their magic number given in the file "magic":

% mkisofs -o cd.iso -apple -magic magic -probe \

        cd_dir another_dir

The following example puts different files on the CD that all have the name README, but have different contents when seen as a ISO9660/RockRidge, Joliet or HFS CD.

Current directory contains:

% ls -F
README.hfs README.joliet README.unix cd_dir/

The following command puts the contents of the directory cd_dir on the CD along with the three README files - but only one will be seen from each of the three filesystems:

% mkisofs -o cd.iso -hfs -J -r -graft-points \

        -hide README.hfs -hide README.joliet \

        -hide-joliet README.hfs -hide-joliet README.unix \

        -hide-hfs README.joliet -hide-hfs README.unix \

        README=README.hfs README=README.joliet \

        README=README.unix cd_dir

i.e. the file README.hfs will be seen as README on the HFS CD and the other two README files will be hidden. Similarly for the Joliet and ISO9660/RockRidge CD.

There are probably all sorts of strange results possible with combinations of the hide options ...

 

SEE ALSO

cdrecord(1), mkzftree(1), magic(5), apple_driver(8).

 

FUTURE IMPROVEMENTS

Some sort of gui interface.  

AVAILABILITY

mkisofs is available as part of the cdrecord package from ftp://ftp.berlios.de/pub/cdrecord/

hfsutils from ftp://ftp.mars.org/pub/hfs

mkzftree is available as part of the zisofs-tools package from ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/fs/zisofs/  

MAILING LISTS

If you want to actively take part on the development of mkisofs, and/or mkhybrid, you may join the cdwriting mailing list by sending mail to:

          other-cdwrite-request@lists.debian.org

and include the word subscribe in the body. The mail address of the list is:

          cdwrite@lists.debian.org

 

MAINTAINER

Joerg Schilling
Seestr. 110
D-13353 Berlin
Germany
 

HFS MKHYBRID MAINTAINER

James Pearson

j.pearson@ge.ucl.ac.uk

If you have support questions, send them to:

cdrecord-support@berlios.de
or other-cdwrite@lists.debian.org

Of you definitly found a bug, send a mail to:

cdrecord-developers@berlios.de
or schilling@fokus.fhg.de

To subscribe, use:

http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-developers
or http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-support


Important: Use the man command (% man) to see how a command is used on your particular computer.

>> Linux/Unix Command Library

>> Shell Command Library

You can opt-out at any time. Please refer to our privacy policy for contact information.

Discuss in my forum

©2014 About.com. All rights reserved.