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Linux / Unix Command: ln
Command Library


ln - make links between files


ln [OPTION]... --target-directory=DIRECTORY TARGET...


Create a link to the specified TARGET with optional LINK_NAME. If LINK_NAME is omitted, a link with the same basename as the TARGET is created in the current directory. When using the second form with more than one TARGET, the last argument must be a directory; create links in DIRECTORY to each TARGET. Create hard links by default, symbolic links with --symbolic. When creating hard links, each TARGET must exist.

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.

make a backup of each existing destination file
like --backup but does not accept an argument
-d, -F, --directory
hard link directories (super-user only)
-f, --force
remove existing destination files
-n, --no-dereference
treat destination that is a symlink to a directory as if it were a normal file
-i, --interactive
prompt whether to remove destinations
-s, --symbolic
make symbolic links instead of hard links
-S, --suffix=SUFFIX
override the usual backup suffix
specify the DIRECTORY in which to create the links
-v, --verbose
print name of each file before linking
display this help and exit
output version information and exit

The backup suffix is `~', unless set with --suffix or SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX. The version control method may be selected via the --backup option or through the VERSION_CONTROL environment variable. Here are the values:

none, off
never make backups (even if --backup is given)
numbered, t
make numbered backups
existing, nil
numbered if numbered backups exist, simple otherwise
simple, never
always make simple backups


The full documentation for ln is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If the info and ln programs are properly installed at your site, the command
info ln

should give you access to the complete manual.

Important: Use the man command (% man) to see how a command is used on your particular computer.

>> Linux/Unix Command Library

>> Shell Command Library

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