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Linux / Unix Command: ls
Command Library


ls - list directory contents


ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...


List information about the FILEs (the current directory by default). Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuSUX nor --sort.

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.

-a, --all
do not hide entries starting with .
-A, --almost-all
do not list implied . and ..
print the author of each file
-b, --escape
print octal escapes for nongraphic characters
use SIZE-byte blocks
-B, --ignore-backups
do not list implied entries ending with ~
with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of file status information) with -l: show ctime and sort by name otherwise: sort by ctime
list entries by columns
control whether color is used to distinguish file types. WHEN may be `never', `always', or `auto'
-d, --directory
list directory entries instead of contents
-D, --dired
generate output designed for Emacs' dired mode
do not sort, enable -aU, disable -lst
-F, --classify
append indicator (one of */=@|) to entries
across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column -1, verbose -l, vertical -C
like -l --time-style=full-iso
like -l, but do not list owner
-G, --no-group
inhibit display of group information
-h, --human-readable
print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)
likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024
-H, --dereference-command-line
follow symbolic links on the command line
--indicator-style=WORD append indicator with style WORD to entry names:
none (default), classify (-F), file-type (-p)
-i, --inode
print index number of each file
-I, --ignore=PATTERN
do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN
like --block-size=1K
use a long listing format
-L, --dereference
when showing file information for a symbolic link, show information for the file the link references rather than for the link itself
fill width with a comma separated list of entries
-n, --numeric-uid-gid
like -l, but list numeric UIDs and GIDs
-N, --literal
print raw entry names (don't treat e.g. control characters specially)
like -l, but do not list group information
-p, --file-type
append indicator (one of /=@|) to entries
-q, --hide-control-chars
print ? instead of non graphic characters
show non graphic characters as-is (default unless program is `ls' and output is a terminal)
-Q, --quote-name
enclose entry names in double quotes
use quoting style WORD for entry names: literal, locale, shell, shell-always, c, escape
-r, --reverse
reverse order while sorting
-R, --recursive
list subdirectories recursively
-s, --size
print size of each file, in blocks
sort by file size
extension -X, none -U, size -S, time -t, version -v
status -c, time -t, atime -u, access -u, use -u
show time as WORD instead of modification time: atime, access, use, ctime or status; use specified time as sort key if --sort=time
show times using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso, iso, locale, +FORMAT
FORMAT is interpreted like `date'; if FORMAT is FORMAT1FORMAT2, FORMAT1 applies to non-recent files and FORMAT2 to recent files; if STYLE is prefixed with `posix-', STYLE takes effect only outside the POSIX locale
sort by modification time
-T, --tabsize=COLS
assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8
with -lt: sort by, and show, access time with -l: show access time and sort by name otherwise: sort by access time
do not sort; list entries in directory order
sort by version
-w, --width=COLS
assume screen width instead of current value
list entries by lines instead of by columns
sort alphabetically by entry extension
list one file per line
display this help and exit
output version information and exit

SIZE may be (or may be an integer optionally followed by) one of following: kB 1000, K 1024, MB 1,000,000, M 1,048,576, and so on for G, T, P, E, Z, Y.

By default, color is not used to distinguish types of files. That is equivalent to using --color=none. Using the --color option without the optional WHEN argument is equivalent to using --color=always. With --color=auto, color codes are output only if standard output is connected to a terminal (tty).


The full documentation for ls is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If the info and ls programs are properly installed at your site, the command
info ls

should give you access to the complete manual.

Important: Use the man command (% man) to see how a command is used on your particular computer.

>> Linux/Unix Command Library

>> Shell Command Library

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