Switch to the first text terminals. Under Linux you can have several (6 in standard setup) terminals opened at the same time. This is a keyboard shortcut, which means: "press the control key and the alt key, hold them. Now press <F1>. Release all keys."
Switch to the nth text terminal. (The same could be accomplished with
the rarely used command chvt n. "chvt" stands for "change
virtual terminal"). In text terminal (outside X), you can also use
<Alt><Fn> (the key <Ctrl> is not needed).
Print the name of the terminal in which you are typing this command.
If you prefer the number of the active terminal (instead of its name),
it can be printed using the command fgconsole (="foreground console").
Switch to the first GUI terminal (if X-windows is running on the 7th terminal,
where it typcially is).
Switch to the nth GUI terminal (if a GUI terminal is running on screen
n-1). On default, the first X server is running on terminal 7. On
default, nothing is running on terminals 8 to 12--you can start subsequent
X server there.
(In a text or X terminal) Autocomplete the command if there is only
one option, or else show all the available options. On newer systems you
may need to press <Tab><Tab>. THIS SHORTCUT
IS GREAT, it can truely save you lots of time.
(In a text or X terminal) Scroll and edit the command history. Press <Enter>
to execute a historical command (to save on typing). <ArrowDown>
Scroll terminal output up. This works also at the login prompt, so you
can scroll through your bootup messages. The amount/usage of your video
memory determines how far back you can scroll the display. <Shift><PgDown>
scrolls the terminal output down.
(in X-windows) Change to the next X-server resolution (if you set up the
X-server to more than one resolution). For multiple resolutions on my
standard SVGA card/monitor, I have the following line in the file /etc/X11/XF86Config
(the first resolution starts on default, the largest resolution determines
the size of the "virtual screen"):
Modes "1024x768" "800x600" "640x480" "512x384" "480x300" "400x300"
Of course, first I had to configure the X server, either by using Xconfigurator,
xf86config, or manually by edition the file /etc/X11/XF86Config,
so that it supports the above resolutions (mostly the matter of uncommenting
the line that defines my video chipset, and specifying the synchronization
frequencies my monitor supports). XFdrake (Mandrake configuration
utility) can do it from GUI. See also the commands xvidtune and
(in X-windows) Change to the previous X-server resolution.
(in X-windows, KDE) Kill the window I am going to click with my mouse
pointer (the pointer changes to something like a death symbol). Similar
result can be obtained with the command xkill (typed in X-terminal).
Useful when an X-window program does not want to close (hangs?).
(in X-windows) Kill the current X-windows server. Use if the X-windows
server cannot be exited normally.
(in text terminal) Shut down the system and reboot. This is the normal
shutdown command for a user at the text-mode console. Don't just press
the "reset" button for shutdown!
Kill the current process (works mostly with small text-mode applications).
(pressed at the beginning of an empty line) Log out from the current terminal.
See also the next command.
Send [End-of-File] to the current process. Don't press it twice else you
also log out (see the previous command).
Stop the transfer to the terminal.
Resume the transfer to the terminal. Try if your terminal mysteriously
stops responding. See the previous command.
Send the current process to the background.
Logout. I can also use logout for the same effect. (If
you have started a second shell, e.g., using bash, this command
will make you exit the second shell, and you will be back in the first
shell, not logged out. Then use another exit to logout.)
Restore a screwed-up terminal (a terminal showing funny characters) to
default setting. Use if you tried to "cat" a binary file. You may not
be able to see the command as you type it, but it still will work.
Paste the text which is currently highlighted somewhere else. This is
the normal "copy-paste" operation in Linux. It a fast and powerful supplement
to the widely-known GUI "copy-paste" menu-based operation. (It doesn't
work inside older versions of Netscape which use the Mac/MS Windows-style
"copy-paste" exclusively. It does work in the text terminal if you enabled
"gpm" service using "setup". It also works inside any dialog boxes, etc.--really
convenient!) It is best used with a Linux-ready 3-button mouse (Logitech
or similar) or else set "3-mouse button emulation". The <MiddleMouseButton>
is normally emulated on a 2-button mouse by pressing both mouse buttons
(tilde character) My home directory (normally the directory /home/my_login_name).
For example, the command cd ~/my_dir will change my working
directory to the subdirectory "my_dir" under my home directory.
Typing just "cd" alone is an equivalent of the command "cd ~". I keep
all my files in my home directory.
(dot) Current directory. For example, ./my_program will attempt
to execute the file "my_program" located in your current working directory.
(two dots) Directory parent to the current one. For example, the command
cd .. will change my current working directory one one level
KDE keyboard shortcuts (useful, but non-essential)
<Alt><Tab> Walk through windows. To walk backwards:
<Ctrl><Tab> Walk through desktops. To
walks backwards: <Ctrl><Shift><Tab>
<Ctrl><Esc> Show the table of processes running on
my system. Allow me to kill any of the processes I started (or send other
signals to them).
<Alt><F1> Access the K-menu ("Equivalent to
MS Windows "Start" menu).
<Alt><F12> Emulate the mouse using the arrow
keys on the keyboard.
<Alt><LeftMouseButton> Drag a window to move
it. Normally, I move a window by dragging its top title bar, but occassionally
I manage to get it off the screen. With this shortcut, I can drag by any
part of the window.
<Alt><PrintScreen> Take a snapshot of the current
window into the clipboard.
<Ctrl><Alt><PrintScreen> Take a snapshot of
the entire desktop into the clipboard.
<Ctrl><Alt><l> Lock the desktop.
<Ctrl><Alt><d> Toggle hide/show the desktop
(great to hide the Solitaire game when your boss walks in).
(Non-essential.) This is a group of key combinations implemented at the
Linux kernel level (a low level). It means, chances are these key combinations
will work most of the time. The combinations are meant for debugging purposes
and in an emergency (mostly developers); you should try other, safer solutions
first. The key <SysRq> is also knows on PC as <PrintScreen>.
The combinations can be enabled/disabled by setting the relevant kernel
variable to "1" or "0", e.g. : echo "1" > /proc/sys/kernel/sysrq
<Alt><SysRq><k> Kill all processes (including
X) which are running on the currently active virtual console. This
key combination is know as "secure access key" (SAK).
<Alt><SysRq><e> Send the TERM signal
to all running processes except init, asking them to exit.
<Alt><SysRq><i> Send the KILL signal
to all running processes except init. This may be more successful in killing
runaway processes than the previous key combination, but it may cause
some of them to exit abnormally.
<Alt><SysRq><l> Send the KILL signal to all
processes, including init. The system will not be functional.
<Alt><SysRq><s> Run an emergency sync
(cache write) on all mounted filesystems. This can prevent data loss.
<Alt><SysRq><u> Remount all mounted filesystems
as read-only. This has the same effect as the sync combination above,
but with one important benefit: if the operation is successful, fsck won't
have to check all filesystems after a computer hardware reset.
<Alt><SysRq><r> Turn off keyboard raw
mode. This can be useful when your X session hangs. After issueing this
command you may be able to use <Ctrl><Alt><Del>.
<Alt><SysRq><b> Reboot immediately without
syncing or unmounting your disks. Your will likely end up with filesystem
<Alt><SysRq><o> Shut the system
off (if configured and supported).
<Alt><SysRq><p> Dump the current
registers and flags to your console.
<Alt><SysRq><t> Dump a list of
current tasks and their information to your console.
<Alt><SysRq><m> Dump memory info
to your console.
<Alt>SysRq><digit> The digit is '0'
to '9'. Set the console log level, controlling which kernel messages will
be printed to your console. For example, '0' will cause only emergency
messages like PANICs or OOPSes displayed on your console.
<Alt><SysRq><h> Display help.
Also, any other unsupported <Alt><SysRq><key> combination
will display the same help.
Next > 5.2 Help commands